Editorial Style Guide


The Lebanon Valley College Editorial Style Guide is designed to help community members answer grammatical and style questions. It is primarily adapted from The Associated Press Stylebook and www.merriam-webster.com. However, adaptations have been made where needed. Note that this guide is intended for use in all print and electronic communications. Please contact Tom Hanrahan at hanrahan@lvc.edu with any questions or comments about the Editorial Style Guide.

Denotes website-specific exceptions.


Directory
A • (academic degrees to athletic and recreational complex) N • (names to numbers)
B • (between/among to buildings/rooms/campus names) O • (occupations to oval logo)
C • (classes and courses to cyber) P • (parentheses to pronouns)
D • (data to due to/because of) Q • (QR codes to quotations)
E • (e.g. to except/accept) R • (race to Rev.)
F • (Facebook to fundraising/fundraiser) S • (search engine optimization/SEO to symposiums)
G • (geolocation/geotagging to Google) T • (telephone numbers to Twitter/tweet/tweeted)
H • (hashtag to hyphens/en dashes/em dashes) U • (unfriend to use/utilize)
I • (i.e. to its/it's) V • (vice president to VoIP)
J • (junior/senior/II/III) W • (web to words not abbreviated)
L • (lay/lie to -ly) Y • (YouTube)
M • (man/mankind to more than/ over use)



A
academic degrees
Academic degrees are only abbreviated after the use of a full name. They require periods after the letters, but no spaces after the periods: A.B.D., B.A., B.S., D.Ed., D.P.T., Ed.D., M.A., M.Ed., M.M.E., and Ph.D. The word “degree” is not needed (and should not be used)  after the  abbreviation. An exception is made for the use of MBA when it does not follow a full name. In all other cases, MBA may be used without periods.

  • John Smith, B.S., will lecture on computer crimes this week.
  • She will receive a master's degree in biology next month.

Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference. Do not use  "a" in the title following a full name when it is part of a longer sentence.
  • Dr. John Smith is a professor of chemistry.
  • Jane Smith, Ph.D., is a professor of biology.
  • Dr. Jane Smith, professor of biology, presented her paper at a national conference.


Lebanon Valley College awards the following regular degrees (no spacing between abbreviated letters): 

Associate of Arts (A.A.) 
Associate of Science (A.S.) 
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) 
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 
Bachelor of Science in Chemistry (B.S. in Chemistry) 
Master of Business Administration (M.B.A. or MBA) 
Master of Music Education (M.M.E.) 
Master in Science Education (M.S.E.) 
Doctor of Physical Therapy (D.P.T.)

Honorary degrees awarded by the College are:
Doctor of Divinity (D.D.)
Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)
Doctor of Laws (L.L.D.)
Doctor of Music (Mus.D.)
Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)

abbreviations—courtesy titles
The following titles may be abbreviated outside direct quotations: Dr., Gov., Lt. Gov., Rep., Sen., the Rev., Pfc., Cpl., Sgt., 1st Lt., Capt., Maj., Lt. Col., Col., Gen., Cmdr., and Adm. Spell out all of the above, except Dr., when used before a name in direct quotations.

In many cases, "the Rev." is the designation that applies before a name on first reference. Use the Rev. Dr. only if the individual has an earned doctoral degree. On second reference to members of the clergy, use only the last name.

  • The Rev. Dr. John Smith organizes the annual student Community Service Awards Program. Smith tracks whether the students achieve Gold, Silver, or Bronze levels.

about/around
Use "around" to refer to a physical proximity or surrounding. Use "about" to indicate an approximation.

  • I'll look for you around the library.
  • Let's meet for lunch about 12:30 p.m. 
academic degrees
Lowercase when referring to a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree or to a doctoral or doctorate program. Do not capitalize the word “degree” when referring to a non-specific degree. Use the possessive form.
  • Jane Smith earned a bachelor's degree from LVC in 1965.
  • John Smith '95 has a master's degree in American studies. 
academic subjects
Capitalize an academic subject only when it is the name of a language, part of an official department name, or part of a course title.
  • The French and German professors will host the faculty picnic.
  • Dr. John Smith is chair of the History and Political Science Department.
  • Dr. Jane Smith teaches Philosophy 110 this semester.
  • She is planning to enroll in an introductory philosophy class.
accept/except
To “accept” is to receive or to respond positively. To “except” is to leave out (verb) or with the exclusion of (preposition).
  • Will you accept the nomination for class president?
  • Except for one misspelled word, the paper would have been perfect.
acronyms
On first reference, give the full name followed by the acronym in parentheses only when referring to the organization later in the text, usually without periods. Use only the acronym in subsequent references.
  • The Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency (PHEAA) forms should be filled out promptly so PHEAA can evaluate your financial need.

active voice
In most cases, avoid using the passive voice; the active voice creates a more interesting sound.

  • Incorrect: Numerous contributions to the College have been received.
  • Correct: The College received numerous contributions.
address/telephone number/website
Lebanon Valley College
(Department or Office)
101 N. College Avenue
Annville, PA 17003-1400
717-867-6000 (campus information)
website: www.lvc.edu

addresses
Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd., and St., only with numbered addresses. Spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a number. Use lowercase and spell out when used alone or with more than one street name. All similar words, such as Alley, Drive, Road, Terrace, etc., are always spelled out.
  • The Blair Music Center is on the corner of Sheridan and College avenues.

Spell out and capitalize First through Ninth when used as street names; use ordinal numbers for 10th and above. Do not use superscript or leave a space between.

  • The bus will only stop at 7 Fifth Ave. and 100 21st St. 
administrative departments and offices
Capitalize the names of departments and offices. Do not capitalize the words “department,” “program,” or “office” when they stand alone. Do not capitalize an incomplete office name.
  • The Athletic Department is located in the Heilman Center.
  • The Business Office is located in the Administration Building/Humanities Center.
  • The Center for Global Education is located in the Lebegern Learning Commons. 
  • Contact public safety for more information.

    Official Names

    Lebegern Learning Commons (entire lower level of Mund)
    The Center for Disability Resouorces
    The Center for Writing and Tutoring Resources (individually, Center for Writing Resources and Center for Tutoring Resources)
    The Centers for Global Education and Career Development (individually, Center for Global Education and Center for Career Development)
    The Commuter Center
Academic Departments
Art & Art History Department
Biology Department
Department of Business and Economics
Chemistry Department
Digital Communications Department
Education Department
English Department
Department of History, Politics, and Global Studies
Languages Department
Mathematical Sciences Department
Music Department
Physical Therapy Department
Physics Department
Psychology Department
Department of Religion and Philosophy
Sociology and Criminal Justice Department

Academic and Administrative Departments, Offices, and Programs
Office of Academic Affairs
Office of Admission
Office of Advancement
Office of Alumni & Parent Programs
Office of Audiovisual Technology
Department of Athletics
Vernon and Doris Bishop Library
Business Office
Center for Career Development
LVC College Store
Office of Community Service and Volunteerism
Office of Counseling Services
Office of Dining Services
Center for Disability Resources
Facilities Services Office (Grounds Department, Housekeeping Department, Maintenance Department)
Financial Aid Office
Center for Global Education
Graduate Studies = Office of Graduate & Professional Studies
Office of Health Services
Offices of Human Resources and Payroll and Benefits
Office of Information Technology
Office of Marketing and Communications
Office of Multicultural Affairs
Office of the President
Office of Public Safety
Professional Studies = Office of Graduate & Professional Studies
Registrar’s Office
Office of Residential Life
Office of Spiritual Life
Student Activities Office
Office of Student Affairs
Center for Tutoring Resources
Center for Writing Resources

advisor
not adviser

advisory
not advisery

aesthetic
not esthetic

affect/effect

Affect is primarily a verb, meaning to have an influence on. Effect as a noun means result or consequence; as a verb, it means to bring about.
  • How did the pills affect you?
  • The effect of the pills was easy to see.
afterward
afterward, not afterwards

all right
all right, not alright

allusion/illusion
An “allusion” is an implied or indirect reference. An “illusion” is a false impression or image.
  • The allusion was to the student's ability to read her mind.
  • The professor created an illusion of lightning and thunder.
Allwein Scholars
The official name of the program is "John Bowman Allwein Scholars Program." It is acceptable to use "Allwein Scholars" when referencing these students.

alma mater
Capitalize and italicize the words alma mater in reference to LVC’s song, lowercase without italics in all other references.
  • In honor of our alma mater, the College choir will sing the Alma Mater.
alumni identification
Identify alumni by giving their year of graduation with an apostrophe before the year. If the person has more than one degree from LVC, give both years separated by a comma. If there is no letter before a class year, the degree is assumed to be a bachelor’s degree. Letters should be used for all other degrees awarded by LVC as follows: D.P.T. (doctor of physical therapy; D’10), H.D. (honorary doctorate; H’10), M.B.A. (master of business administration; M’10), M.M.E. (master of music education; M’10); and M.S.E. (master of science education; M’10). LVC affiliation should also be noted for parents of current students and alumni (P’10).
  • John Smith '65 is the assistant director of financial aid at Lebanon Valley College.
  • Jane Smith '10, D'12 was hired by PinnacleHealth as a physical therapist.

Identify alumni with advanced degrees from other institutions by stating their name, the advanced degree offset by commas, and their LVC class year.

  • John Smith, Ph.D., '64 enjoys playing golf.
alumna/alumnae/alumnus/alumni
An alumna is a female graduate. Alumnae are a group of women graduates. “Alumna” refers to one woman, “alumnae” refers to a group of women, “alumnus” refers to one man, and “alumni” refers to a group of men or a group of men and women. It is rare to see the feminine plural form, “alumnae.” Most often the form “alumni” is used for any group of graduates.

alumni awards
Lebanon Valley College presents the following alumni awards:
Alumni Citation
Creative Achievement Award
D. Clark Carmean Award in Admission
Distinguished Alumni Award*
June Herr Outstanding Educator of the Year Award
Young Alumni Award*

*Note: The name of the above awards must be gender-specific when it precedes or follows the name of the award winner.
  • Jane Smith was awarded an Alumna Citation in 2010.
a.m./p.m.
Do not capitalize “a.m.” or “p.m.” Use periods without intervening spaces.

among/between
Use “among” to show the relationship between three or more objects. Use “between” to show the relationship between two objects. Any pronouns that follow “among” or “between” must be in the objective case: among us; between him and her; between you and me.
  • He divided the task among his students.
  • She divided the task between her two students.
ampersand (&)
For print and electronic communications, do not use ampersands (&) except in some formal corporate names and titles. Some campus exceptions exist (Art & Art History; Graduate & Professional Studies; Alumni & Parent Engagement; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Track & Field) as well as exceptions for the College website as noted below.
  • Jane Smith is the director of the Office of Graduate & Professional Studies at Lebanon Valley College. 

Ampersands are acceptable on the College website for use in titles and navigational listings.

app
Short for application. App is acceptable on second reference.

appendices

not appendixes

apostrophes, single and double quotation marks
Always use true apostrophes and quotations—sometimes called “curly” or “smart” quotes. Both Macs and PCs can be set to automatically use this style. Please contact IT Services if you need assistance in locating this option on your computer.

around/about
Use “around” to refer to a physical proximity or surrounding. Use “about” to indicate an approximation.

  • I'll look for you around the library.
  • Let's meet for lunch about 12:30 p.m.
athletic awards
Lebanon Valley College presents the following athletic awards:
Chuck Maston Memorial Award
Honorable John A. Walter Outstanding Scholar Athlete Award
John Zola Memorial Award
Lebanon Valley College Athletic Service Award
Lou Sorrentino ’54 Outstanding Male Athlete Award
Outstanding Woman Athlete Award
Student Athlete Advisory Council Team of the Year
Woman’s Sportsmanship Award

athletic and recreational complex

Arnold Sports Center and Heilman Center (entire complex)
Arnold Sports Center
Edward H. Arnold Sports Center or Arnold Center
Heilman Center
Henry and Gladys Arnold Field or Arnold Field
Lebanon Valley College Softball Park
Herbert Field (soccer field)
Lebanon Valley College Gymnasium
Lebanon Valley College Tennis Courts
McGill Baseball Park
Rohland Fields
Sorrentino Gymnasium


B
between/among
Use “among” to show the relationship between three or more objects. Use “between” to show the relationship between two objects. Any pronouns that follow “among” or “between” must be in the objective case: among us; between him and her; between you and me.
  • He divided the task among his students.
  • She divided the task between her two students.
blog
Originally a shortening for the term Web log, blog is now commonly accepted. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used in a title or as the first word of a sentence.

Blue & White Club
Always use an ampersand for the Blue & White Club.Donors can give to specific teams or to the Blue & White Club to support all student-athletes.

board of trustees
The “board of trustees” should be capitalized only when referring to Lebanon Valley College’s board, but “board” by itself is not capitalized, nor is “trustees.”

  • The Board of Trustees meets in May and November.
  • The board will meet in November with most trustees attending.
building, room, and facility names
Administration Building/Humanities Center
Allan W. Mund College Center or Mund College Center  (upper level)
Benjamin Cantor Entrance
Blair Music Center
Bollinger Plaza
Carmean Plaza
Carnegie Building
Cuewe-Pehelle
Elaine Frock Conference Room
Emmett C. Roop Management Department Wing
Fasick Bridge
Fencil Building
Frank Aftosmes House
Frock Conference Room
Humanities Center: always use Administration Building/Humanities Center
Kreiderheim
Laughlin Hall
Lebanon Valley College Arboretum
Lebegern Learning Commons (lower level of Mund)
Leedy Theater
Lehr Dining Room
Leon and Ethel Yeiser Rose Garden
Lutz Hall
Lynch Memorial Hall
Miller Chapel
Neidig-Garber Science Center (always hyphenate Neidig-Garber)
New Student Center
Peace Garden
Phillips Dining Room
Presser Gillespsie Keyboard Lab
Reinhart Board Committee Room
Shroyer Health Center
Suzanne H. Arnold Art Gallery*
Suzanne H. Arnold Gallery** Zimmerman Recital Hall
Synodinos Commons
The Underground
Tweedie Meeting Rooms
Vernon and Doris Bishop Library
Wagner House
Wengert Living Room 
William H. Lodge Mathematical Sciences Center
Williams Woods
Yuhas Commons
Zimmerman Recital Hall: should always be referred to as Zimmerman Recital Hall of the Suzanne H. Arnold Gallery
*Suzanne H. Arnold Art Gallery is used only in reference to the art gallery.
**Suzanne H. Arnold Gallery is used for references to the building.
***Capitalize "Gallery" whenever referring to the Suzanne H. Arnold Gallery.
  • The exhibit in the Suzanne H. Arnold Art Gallery will end this week.
  • Student performances are sometimes held in the Zimmerman Recital Hall of the Suzanne H. Arnold Gallery.


C
classes and courses
Use lowercase when referring to academic classes and courses unless the specific and complete title is used or the name carries a proper noun or numeral.
  • She is taking an introductory biology class.
  • This semester, she is taking General Biology II.
centuries
Spell out the first through ninth centuries. Use numerals for 10th century and above. Do not use superscript for “nd,” “st,” “rd,” or “th,” and do not capitalize the word “century” unless it is part of a proper name or used in a title.
  • The College was founded in the 19th century.
clergy
The word “the” must precede “Reverend” or “Rev.” as a title only when the person also has a doctorate, “Dr.” comes after “Rev.”
  • The Rev. John Smith and the Rev. Dr. Jane Smith gave a joint sermon in Miller Chapel last week.
click-throughs
Always hyphenated.

city/state
Place a comma between the city and state name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence.

  • Lebanon Valley College is in Annville, Pa.
  • Hershey, Pa., is the site of this year's conference.

 State Abbreviations

• Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kan., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Neb., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.M., N.Y., N.C., N.D., Okla., Ore., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.D., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., and Wyo. Use Washington, D.C. Do not abbreviate to D.C. or DC.

collective nouns
Nouns such as class, committee, crowd, faculty, family, group, jury, orchestra, staff, and team denote a unit and require singular verbs and pronouns. To create a plural construction, try adding the word “members” for clarity.
  • The staff is meeting to set goals for the next fiscal year.
  • The staff members are happy with their progress to date.
college
Capitalize the word “college” in all references to Lebanon Valley College.
  • Lebanon Valley College was founded in 1866.
  • The College is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.
college awards
Lebanon Valley College presents the following awards:
Founders Day Award
Howard Anthony Neidig Award
Nevelyn Knisley Award for Inspirational Teaching
President’s Award
Thomas Rhys Vickroy Award for Teaching
Student Government Educator of the Year Award

College Store
It is primarily referred to as the LVC College Store and capitalized. It is never referred to as the bookstore or college bookstore. For marketing purposes, the Office of Marketing and Communications will sometimes refer to it as the Barnes & Noble LVC College Store.

colons and semicolons
Use a colon toward the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc. Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence.

  • The professor promised two things: The class will require hard work and total dedication.
  • They invited everyone: students, faculty, and staff.

A semicolon connects an independent and a dependent clause with a connecting word like “therefore” or “however” and to clarify a series. Use semicolons to separate elements of a series when the items in the series are long or when individual segments contain material that also must be set off by commas. Note that the semicolon is used before the final "and" in such a series or final conjunction.

  • We received the report; therefore, the follow-up mailing is unnecessary.
  • He is survived by a son, John Smith, of Chicago; three daughters, Jane Smith, of Wichita, Kan., Mary Smith, of Denver, and Susan Smith, of Boston; and a sister, Martha Smith, of Omaha, Neb.

commas
In a Series: Use commas to separate elements in a series. Put a comma before the conjunction in all series (both simple and complex):

  • The flag is red, white and blue.
  • The main points to consider are whether the athletes are skillful enough to compete, whether they have the stamina to endure the training, and whether they have the proper mental attitude.

With Equal Adjectives: Use commas to separate a series of adjectives equal in rank. If the comma could be replaced by the word "and" without changing the sense, the adjectives are equal:

  • a thoughtful, precise manner; a dark, dangerous street.

Use no comma when the last adjective before a noun outranks its predecessors because it is an integral element of a noun phrase, which is the equivalent of a single noun:

  • a cheap fur coat (the noun phrase is fur coat); the old oaken bucket; a new blue spring bonnet.

With Hometowns and Ages: Use a comma to set off an individual's hometown when it is placed in opposition to a name (whether "of" is used or not):

  • Mary Richards, Minneapolis, and Maude Findlay, of Tuckahoe, N.Y., were there.

If an individual's age is used, set it off by commas:

  • Maude Findlay, 48, Tuckahoe, N.Y., was present.

Names of States and Nations Used with City Names:

  • His journey will take him from Dublin, Ireland, to Fargo, N.D., and back.
  • The Selma, Ala., group saw the governor.

In Large Figures: Use a comma for most figures greater than 999. The major exceptions are: street addresses (1234 Main St.), broadcast frequencies (1460 kilohertz), room numbers, serial numbers, telephone numbers, and years (1876).

Placement with Quotes: Commas always go inside quotation marks.

With Full Dates: When a phrase refers to a month, day, and year, set off the year with a comma:

  • Feb. 14, 2012, is the target date.
commas and names Do not use a comma before “Jr.,” “Sr.,” “II,” etc., after a person’s name.
  • His name was John Smith Jr.
  • John Smith III will be a sophomore next year.
  • John Smith III '86 is receiving an Alumni Citation this year. 
commencement
Always capitalize the word “commencement” when it is used in reference to LVC’s graduation ceremony.

committees
Only capitalize the word “committee” when it is part of the proper name of a group. Do not capitalize it on subsequent references even when referring to a specific committee.
  • The Curriculum Committee will meet tomorrow at noon; committee members should bring bag lunches.
company names
Only use the abbreviations Co., Cos., Inc., or Ltd. if it is part of an official name or title of an organization. Do not use a comma before Inc. or Ltd. unless the company does so in its official title. Only use the ampersand if it is part of an official name or title.

compose/comprise/constitute
“Compose” is to create or put together; “comprise” is to contain, to include all, or embrace; and “constitute” is to make up, to be the elements of.
  • The Office of Marketing and Communications is comprised of nine people. 
  • The Office of Marketing and Communications comprises nine people.
  • Nine people constitute the Office of Marketing and Communications.
composition titles
Apply the guidelines listed here to titles of books, computer games, movies, operas, plays, poem, albums and songs, radio and television programs, lectures, speeches, and works of art.

The guidelines, followed by a block of examples:
–Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters.

–Capitalize an article – the, a, an – or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title.

–Put quotation marks around the names of all such works except the Bible and books that are primarily catalogs of reference material. In addition to catalogs, this category includes almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks and similar publications. Do not use quotation marks around such software titles as WordPerfect or Windows.

–Translate an international title into English unless a work is generally known by its foreign name. An exception to this is reviews of musical performances. In those instances, generally refer to the work in the language it was sung in, so as to differentiate for the reader. However, musical compositions in Slavic languages are always referred to in their English translations.

Examples: "The Star-Spangled Banner," "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," "Gone With the Wind," "Of Mice and Men," "For Whom the Bell Tolls," "Time After Time," the NBC-TV "Today" program, the "CBS Evening News," "The Mary Tyler Moore Show."

Reference works: "Jane's All the World's Aircraft"; "Encyclopedia Britannica"; "Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second Edition".

Names of most websites and apps are capitalized without quotes: Facebook, Foursquare.
Exception: "FarmVille" and similar computer game apps are in quotes.

International works: Rousseau's "War," not Rousseau's "La Guerre." But: Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa." Mozart's "The Marriage of Figaro" if sung in English but "Le Nozze di Figaro" if sung in Italian.

– For other classical music titles, use quotation marks around the composition's nickname but not around a composition identified by its sequence.

Examples: Dvorak's "New World Symphony." Dvorak's Symphony No. 9.

continual/continuous
“Continual” is steady repetition. “Continuous” is uninterrupted.

courtesy/formal titles
Do not use courtesy titles (Miss, Mr., Mrs., Ms.) before a name in printed material. Instead, use the first and last names with middle initial on first reference and last name only on second reference. If the person is a married alumna who has taken her husband’s last name, substitute her middle initial with her surname at birth. On subsequent references, use the last name only.
  • The office of Jane Smith Jones '65 is in Laughlin Hall.
crowdsourcing
Always one word.

currently/presently
“Currently” and “presently” are not synonymous. “Currently” means now, and “presently” means for the time being, temporarily. In most cases, “currently” is unnecessary. Instead of writing, “We are currently revising the plan,” write, “We are revising the plan.”

cyber/cyberbullying/cybercafé/cyberspace
Each is one word; do not hyphenate. Also, cyberwar, cyberart, cyberfair.


D

data As a plural count noun, “data” usually takes a plural verb. When “data” is used as a collective noun, or when the group or quantity is regarded as a mass noun, it takes a singular verb.

  • Many of these data are useless because of their lack of specifics.
  • The data is sound.
dates
Do not use “nd,” “st,” “rd,” or “th” with dates.

  • Instead of, “Room keys must be turned in by May 1st,” use, “Room keys must be turned in by May 1.”

    Do not use the word “on” with a date unless it is needed to avoid confusion. See “months” for a list of official abbreviations and their usage.
  • The lecture will be held March 24.
  • The seminar runs from Jan. 30 to Feb. 2. 
days of the week
Do not abbreviate the days of the week. Separate day from month with a comma.

• Classes begin Tuesday, Aug. 29, at 8 a.m.

decades

Do not use an apostrophe to form the plural when referring to a decade as a single period of time.
  • The 1960s was a time of radical change.
department chair titles (official title; title to use in text)
  • Clark and Edna Carmean Distinguished Professor of Music; Dr. Mark Mecham, chair and Clark and Edna Carmean Distinguished Professor of Music
  • Eugene C. Fish Distinguished Chair in Business; Dr. David V. Rudd, Eugene C. Fish Distinguished Chair of Business and professor and chair of business and economics
  • Newton and Adelaide Burgner Endowed Professor of Instrumental Music; Dr. Johannes Dietrich, Newton and Adelaide Burgner Professor of Instrumental Music
  • Vernon and Doris Bishop Distinguished Professor of Chemistry; Dr. Owen Moe, chair and Vernon and Doris Bishop Distinguished Professor of Chemistry
different from
Use “different from,” not different than.

dollars
When mentioning whole dollar amounts, simply use a dollar sign and the numbers; do not use a decimal point and zeroes. For amounts over $999, use a comma to separate digits. For amounts over a million dollars, use the dollar sign and the numerals up to two decimal places.
  • Tickets to the play cost $10 each. She estimates that repairs will cost $1,500.
  • This year's campaign netted $14.2 million. 
dot-com
The word “dot-com” is always hyphenated.

due to/because of
“Due to” is adjectival, and in proper usage you should be able to substitute it with "attributable to," "caused by," or "resulting from." “Because of” is adverbial and means "as a result of." Do not use “due to” to mean “because of.”
  • His failure to win reelection was largely due to his lackluster campaigning.
  • Because of a badly sprained ankle, she had to drop out of the race.


E
e.g.
Meaning "for example." It is always followed by a comma.

ellipsis (...)
In general, treat an ellipsis as a three-letter word, constructed with three periods and two spaces. Use an ellipsis to indicate the deletion of one or more words in condensing quotes, texts, and documents. Be especially careful to avoid deletions that would distort the meaning.

email/epayment/e-book/e-business/e-commerce
"Email," without a hyphen, is acceptable in all references for electronic mail. "Epayment," without a hyphen, is acceptable in all references for epayment except when referring to LVC's online payment system, ePayment. In those instances, please capitalize the "P." Use a hyphen with other e-terms: e-book, e-business, e-commerce, e-communications. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used in a title or as the first word of a sentence.

  • Email is the most efficient communication for conducting e-commerce. 
  • I sometimes receive more than 50 emails in a day.
emerita/emeritus/emeriti
The words emerita (for a woman) and emeritus (for a man) should follow a person’s name and formal title. Emeriti are used for a group that includes both men and women. All three words should be italicized.
  • Dr. John Smith is a professor emeritus of economics at LVC.
  • There are 15 faculty emeriti registered for the concert.
  • Dr. Jane Smith, professor emerita of English, was the guest speaker.
ensure/insure/assure
“Ensure” means to guarantee an event or condition. “Insure” has a context of limiting financial liability for a person, place, or thing. "Assure" is done toward a person or animal to remove anxiety or doubt.
  • Steps were taken to ensure the accuracy of the scores.
  • The policy will insure the property in case of a natural catastrophe.

entitled/titled
“Entitled” means a right to do or have something. Use “titled” to introduce the name of a publication, speech, musical piece, etc.
  • The professor is entitled to an explanation regarding the student's tardiness.
  • The students are required to read the book, titled "The Bedford Handbook."
  • Dr. John Smith, professor of sociology, will give a lecture, titled "The State of Africa."
etc.
Abbreviation for et cetera, a Latin expression meaning “and other things” or “and so on.” A single period should follow in all cases.

Ethernet

Ethernet is always capitalized.

ex-

Hyphenate compound words beginning with “ex-” and meaning former.
  • The committee's ex-chair will be the featured speaker at our next meeting.
except/accept
To “accept” is to receive or to respond positively. To “except” is to leave out (verb) or with the exclusion of (preposition).
  • Will you accept the nomination for class president?
  • Except for one misspelled word, the paper would have been perfect. 
  • He assured officials that he would arrive early.


F
Facebook
Always capitalized. LVC’s official Facebook pages are:
faculty/staff

The collective nouns “faculty” and “staff” are singular nouns. To create a plural construction, use “members of the faculty/staff” or “faculty/staff members.”

  • The faculty is meeting to set its agenda.
  • The faculty members are happy with the decision.

faculty titles
The title of “professor” may be used for persons with the rank of professor, assistant professor, associate professor, or adjunct professor, but not for those with the rank of lecturer or instructor. Do not abbreviate “professor” as “prof.” The title “Dr.” is proper to use only for persons who have earned doctoral degrees and should not be used for faculty members who have not earned one of these degrees.

farther/further
“Farther” refers to physical distance. “Further” refers to an extension of time or degree.

  • She ran farther into the woods.
  • He will look further into the matter.

fewer/less
Generally, “fewer” is used with nouns that can be counted and “less” with nouns that cannot be counted individually. However, “less” is idiomatic in certain constructions where “fewer” would occur according to the traditional rule. “Less than” is used before a plural noun that denotes a measure of time, amount, or distance: less than three weeks; less than $400; less than 50 miles. “Less” is sometimes used with plural nouns in the expressions “no less than.”

  • No less than 30 of his peers signed the petition. 
  • We had fewer attendees than anticipated.
  • Give your reasons in 25 words or less.
  • If there was less noise, it would be a great place to study.

flickr
Never capitalized. LVC’s official flickr page is:

    Flying Dutchman/Flying Dutchmen
    The Flying Dutchman has traditionally been the athletic mascot of Lebanon Valley College, although in recent years it has been used throughout campus and in some admission communications. The term “Dutchman” should only be used when referring to the actual mascot. The term “Dutchmen” is the recommended reference in all other use. When referring to LVC athletic teams or the athletic program, the plural, “Flying Dutchmen” or “Dutchmen,” should always be used. The Flying Dutchman logo should primarily be used for athletics, though it may also be used for campus spirit events. 

    Founders Day
    The plural form of the word “founder,” without the possessive, is used when referring to LVC’s “Founders Day.”

    fractions
    Spell out fractions in written material. Hyphenate them when they are used as adjectives or adverbs; do not hyphenate fractions used as nouns.

    • One fourth of the students live in apartments. 
    • The renovation is almost three-fourths completed.

    friend/follow/like
    Acceptable as both nouns and verbs and describing actions by which users connect to other users on social networks. "Friend" and "like" are typically used on Facebook, while Twitter users "follow" or "have followers."

    full time/full-time

    Hyphenate when “full time” is used as a compound modifier.

    • There are more than 1,600 full-time undergraduate students at LVC.
    • They attend college full time.

    fundraising/fundraiser
    One word in all cases.

    • They planned a fundraising event for Oktoberfest Weekend.


    G
    geolocation/geotagging
    Geolocation is the association of your virtual location with your physical location. Geotagging is the act of adding geographical metadata to pieces of media or social media updates. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used in a title or as the first word of a sentence and do not hyphenate.

    Google
    Google is a trademark for a Web search engine. Google, Googling, and Googled are used informally as a verb for searching for information on the Internet, and each term should always be capitalized.


    H
    hashtag
    To hashtag is to use a number sign (#) in a tweet to convey the subject a user is writing about so that it can be indexed and accessed in other users’ feeds. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used as the first word of a sentence and do not hyphenate.

    homepage
    The term “homepage” is constructed as a single word. Use lowercase letters.

    honorary degrees
    Lebanon Valley College awards the following honorary degrees (no spacing between abbreviated letters):
    Doctor of Divinity (D.D.)
    Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)
    Doctor of Laws (L.L.D.)
    Doctor of Music (Mus.D.)
    Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)

    honors
    Use lowercase and italicize the words cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.

    hot spot
    Two words, for description of the area where computers can connect wirelessly among others. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used as the first word of a sentence.

    hyphens/en dashes/em dashes
    Hyphens are the shortest dashes and are used to hyphenate words.
    • She teaches 12th-grade physics.
    • He has a happy-go-lucky attitude.

    En dashes are longer hyphens and are used to separate ranges of numbers. If the word “to” can be substituted in place of the dash, than an en dash is the preferred punctuation to use. En dashes are also used instead of hyphens in compound adjectives when one of the items is two words or a hyphenated word.

    • North Carolina–based firm sent a representative to the LVC Job Fair.
    • He attended Lebanon Valley College from 2006–2010.
    • He attended Lebanon Valley College from 2006 to 2010.

    Em dashes are the longest dashes. They are used to indicate breaks of thought within sentences.

    • Jane stopped abruptly on her way across the Quad—she had heard her professor’s voice calling her name.

    If you need help locating the en- and em-dash options on your computer, please contact either IT Services or the Office of Marketing and Communications.



    I
    i.e.
    Always followed by a comma.

     

    IM
    Abbreviation for instant messaging; sometimes used as a verb IM’ing, IM’ed is acceptable on second reference for instant messaging.

    initials
    Use periods and no space when an individual uses initials instead of a first name.
    • E.H. "Ed" Arnold H'87 is a trustee emeritus of Lebanon Valley College.
    in regard to
    In regard to, not in regards to

    internet/intranet
    Internet is always capitalized while intranet is only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in a formal title.
    • Access to the Internet is available on all College computers.
    • Employees can access benefit information via the company's intranet.
    its/it’s
    Do not confuse “its” with “it’s.” “Its” is the possessive form of the word “it.” “It’s” is the contraction of “it is.”
    •  It's time to take action to help LVC achieve its goals.


    J
    junior/senior/II/III

    Abbreviate “Junior” and “Senior” after a person’s name. Do not use a comma after the name or after the generational.

    • John Smith Jr. '12 was elected class president. 
    • John Smith III '12 was elected class president.


    L
    lay/lie

    “Lay” means to place or deposit, and requires a direct object (forms: lay, laid, laid, laying). “Lie” means to be in a reclining position or to be situated; it does not take an object (forms: lie, lay, lain, laying).

    • The professor asked the student to lay the book on the table.
    • The students were tired, so they went to lie down in their rooms.

    Lebanon Valley College
    The formal title of our institution is Lebanon Valley College; this name and the College website (www.lvc.edu) is to be used in all public-oriented communications. The abbreviated forms LVC and the Valley are acceptable in succeeding references only after the formal title of the College has been stated.

    • Lebanon Valley College is located in Central Pennsylvania. At LVC, students enjoy small classes while receiving a quality education.

    The formal title of Lebanon Valley College should be used when possible on social media or other informal web entities associated with the College. Any exception should be included as part of the initial social media account proposal.

    lectern/podium
    A speaker stands behind a lectern or on a podium.

    let/leave
    To “let alone” means to leave something undisturbed. To “leave alone” means to depart from or cause to be in solitude.

    letters/numbers/symbols
    Form plurals of letters, numbers, symbols, abbreviations, and words used as words by adding an apostrophe and an “s.” Mind your P’s and Q’s. Do not use an ampersand (&)” in place of “and” in printed work.

    likable
    Likable, not likeable

    LinkedIn
    The L and I are always capitalized. LVC's official LinkedIn pages are:

    • www.linkedin.com/groups/LebanonValleyCollege (Alumni Professional Network)
    • www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=902797 (MBA Program)

    livable
    Livable, not liveable

    located
    In most cases, “located” is not necessary to the construction of a sentence. Instead of writing, “The bookstore is located in the Mund College Center,” write, “The bookstore is in the Mund College Center.” Do not use, “Where are you located?” Instead, use “Where are you?”

    login/logon/logoff
    “Login,” “logon,” and “logoff” are single words when used as nouns. They are two words when used as verbs. The login consists of a user name and password. A user name and password is necessary to log in to the computer.

    logo
    An approved College logo may be used on material that is less formal than that requiring the official seal. All College stationery, brochures, and publications should carry an approved College logo and official College web address (www.lvc.edu).

    lowercase/uppercase
    “Lowercase” is one word when referring to the absence of capital letters. “Uppercase” is one word in reference to capital letters.

    -ly
    Do not hyphenate compound modifiers with an adverb ending in “-ly.”

    • The recently completed Mund College Center was dedicated during Oktoberfest 2013.


    M
    man/mankind
    The word “man” has come to mean an adult male rather than a general term for men and women. To avoid sexist language, use “humanity,” “human beings,” “people,” or “the average person” instead of “mankind” or “the common man.”

    masculine pronouns
    Avoid using the pronoun “he” to refer to both males and females. “He and she” could be used each time, but this can get tiresome. Try rewriting the sentence using a plural pronoun or eliminating the pronoun entirely. Do not resort to the “slash method” of “he/she” or “s/he.” Not: Each student should turn in his room key. Preferred options:
    • Students should turn in their room keys.
    • Students should turn in room keys tomorrow.
    • Each student should turn in his or her room key.
    masculine pronouns for indefinites
    Avoid using the masculine pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns “one,” “everyone,” “someone,” “no one,” “anyone,” “anybody,” “everybody,” “somebody,” “nobody,” “each,” “either,” and “neither.” Restructure the sentence on the plural or rewrite it in another form.
    • Not: Anyone who cuts class shall have his grade lowered.
    • Instead: Everyone who cuts class shall have their grades lowered.
    mashup
    Always one word. Use lowercase except when mashup is used in a company title or the first word of a sentence.

    metadata

    Always one word. Use lowercase except when metadata is used in a company title or the first word of a sentence.

    measurements

    Spell out inches, feet, and other units of measurement.

    microsite

    Always one word. Use lowercase except when microsite is used in a company title or the first word of a sentence.

    midnight/noon
    “Midnight” and “noon” stand alone; do not put “12” in front of either one.

    months
    The months March, April, May, June, and July should not be abbreviated. Abbreviate the names of other months only if stating a specific date. Do not abbreviate a month used alone or with the year only.
    • Fall classes begin Aug. 27, 2012.
    • The residence halls will be ready for use in August 2007.
    more than/over
    “more than” to mean in excess of. Use “over” when referring to physical placement of an object, an ending, or extent of authority.
    • Not: Over 100 students attended the lecture.
    • Instead: More than 100 students attended the lecture.”

    MySpace
    The M and S are always capitalized.



    N
    names
    Form plurals of family names that end in “s” by adding “es.”

     

    • The Woodses live in Annville.
    nouns not ending in “s”
    Form the possessive of singular or plural nouns that do not end in “s” by adding an apostrophe and an “s.”
    • The book's cover was torn.
    • John's paper was handed in on time.
    numbers
    In general, spell out the numbers one through nine and use numerals for 10 and above. Ages, however, are always written with numerals. Spell out numbers for school grades and numbers that begin a sentence.
    • John is a 70-year-old man.
    • She teaches twelfth grade.
    • Eleven or 12 of her friends traveled five to 10 miles to attend the concert.


    O
    occupations
    Avoid using masculine terms to describe occupations that could be held by either a man or a woman. Instead of “chairman,” use the word “chair” or “chairperson” or a similar gender-neutral term. Instead of businessman, fireman, or mailman, use business executive or manager, firefighter, or mail carrier.

    off-campus locations
    Allen Theatre
    MJ’s Coffeehouse
    Quittapahilla Creek
    Quittie Park

    on campus/on-campus
    Hyphenate when “on campus” is used as a compound modifier.

     

    • Most LVC students live on campus all four years.
    • On-campus housing is available to all students.

    online/offline
    The words “online” and “offline” are single words.

    opt in/opt out
    Neither verb is hyphenated.

    oval logo
    An official interlocking LVC logo is used on athletic publications, as well as on other less formal publications. For guidance on appropriate use of College logos, please see the LVC Visual Identity Guide.


    P
    parentheses
    Place the period inside the parentheses when the material inside the parentheses forms an independent sentence; otherwise place the period outside.

     

    • You may purchase concert tickets at the door (until they are sold out).
    • The concert begins at 8 p.m. (Refreshments will be served at 7:30 p.m.)
    Parents’ Council and Parents’ Guide
    The plural possessive word “parents’” is the correct form to use in reference to LVC’s “Parents’ Council” and “Parents’ Guide.”

    part time/part-time
    Hyphenate when “part time” is used as a compound modifier.
    • She attends classes part time, and he is a part-time student.
    past experience
    “Experience” stands alone. Using “past” and “experience” together is redundant.

    percent
    Use numerals for percentages and always spell out “percent.”
    • Almost 50 percent of the students came to the luncheon.
    • Only 6 percent of the students scored a 90 or above on the test.
    Phishing
    A form of Internet fraud that aims to steal personal information such as credit cards, Social Security numbers, user IDs, and passwords. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used as the first word of a sentence.

    plural nouns
    For plural nouns ending in “s,” form the possessive by adding an apostrophe after the “s.”
    • The books’ covers were torn.
    • The students' papers were handed in on time.

    For singular nouns, form the possessive of singular nouns ending in "s" by adding an apostrophe at the end of the word.

    • Some of the campus' buildings are open to the public.

    possessives
    See nouns not ending in “s,” pronouns, and singular nouns.

    pronouns
    The possessive of indefinite pronouns, but not of personal pronouns, is formed by adding an apostrophe and an “s.” The possessive forms of personal pronouns—his, hers, its, theirs, ours, and yours—do not have apostrophes.
    • Somebody's book had a torn cover.
    • Everybody's papers were handed in on time.
    • His book had a torn cover.


    Q
    QR code
    Abbreviation of quick response code, the QR is always capitalized and code is always lowercase.

    quotations
    Periods and commas go inside quotation marks; colons and semicolons go outside quotation marks. Place exclamation points and question marks inside the quotation marks when they are part of the quotation; otherwise place them outside. In long quotations, each new paragraph should begin with an open quotation mark.

    • I am reading "The Lottery"; it's a short story by Shirley Jackson.
    • "Where is my copy?" he asked.
    • Where is my copy of "The Lottery"?


    R
    race
    Capitalize the names of races such as “African-American,” “Asian,” “Caucasian,” and “Hispanic.” Do not capitalize “black” or “white” when referring to races unless they are part of a proper name.

     

    • Both black and white students celebrated Black History Month in February.
    RSS
    An abbreviation for Really Simple Syndication, which is a protocol for subscribing to and distributing feeds that notify people of new entries on news sites, blogs, podcasts, or other online information sources. RSS is acceptable in all references. LVC's official RSS feed is:
    • http://www.lvc.edu/rss
    regions
    In general, lowercase “north,” “south,” “northeast,” “northern,” etc., when they indicate compass directions; capitalize these words when they designate regions.

    residence halls
    Always refer to campus housing as residence hall(s); dormitory or dormitories is no longer applicable.
    Centre Hall
    38 College Avenue
    44 College Avenue
    104 College Avenue
    118 College Avenue
    136 College Avenue
    138 College Avenue
    144 College Avenue
    150 College Avenue
    Dellinger Hall
    Derickson A Hall Apartments
    Derickson B Hall Apartments
    Friendship House
    Funkhouser Hall
    Hammond Hall
    Keister Hall
    Maple Hall East
    Maple Hall West
    Marquette Hall
    Mary Green Hall
    North College
    20 West Sheridan Hall
    22 West Sheridan Hall
    24 West Sheridan Hall
    73 East Sheridan Hall
    79 East Sheridan Hall
    81 East Sheridan Hall
    Silver Hall
    Stanson Hall
    Vickroy Hall

    retweet
    The practice, on Twitter, of forwarding a message or link from someone else to your followers. Used without a hyphen and lowercase except when the words are used in a title or as the first word of a sentence.

    Rev.
    In many cases, the Rev. is the designation that applies before a name on first reference. Use the Rev. Dr. only if the individual has an earned doctoral degree. On second reference to members of the clergy, use only the last name.
    • The Rev. Dr. John Smith organizes the annual student Community Service Awards Program. Smith tracks whether the students achieve Gold, Silver, or Bronze level.


    S
    search engine optimization/SEO
    Never hyphenated; SEO is acceptable on second reference.

    seasons
    Do not capitalize the names of seasons unless they are part of a proper name.
    • In the fall, we can go to the Bedford County Fall Foliage Festival.
    self
    Hyphenate compound words beginning with “self-.”
    • The professor showed self-restraint after the student arrived late to class for the fifth day in a row.
    singular nouns
    Form the possessive of singular nouns ending in “s” by adding an apostrophe at the end of the word.
    •  Some of the campus buildings are open to the public.
    smart phone
    Always two words.

    social media

    Online tools that people use to connect with one another, including social networks. Used without a hyphen and lowercase except when the words are used in a title or as the first word of a sentence.

    social network/social networking

    A practice by which people meet, interact, and share information online through the use of such sites as Facebook or Twitter.

    spaces between sentences

    Use only one space between sentences.

    states
    Do not abbreviate Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, or Utah. Always spell out the name of any state when it is used alone. When the name of the state follows the city, use the Associated Press abbreviations given below, not the postal service abbreviations.

     State Abbreviations

    • Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kan., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Neb., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.M., N.Y., N.C., N.D., Okla., Ore., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.D., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., and Wyo. Use Washington, D.C. Do not abbreviate to D.C. or DC.

    student body

    Use “student” or “students,” not “student body.”

    student classifications
    Do not capitalize the words “freshman,” “sophomore,” “junior,” and “senior.” Capitalize the word “class” only when it is part of the name of a specific group or program title.
    • the freshman class has orientation in August.
    • The Class of 2015 will hold a meeting in Miller Chapel tomorrow. 
    • The Senior Class Gift Drive is under way.
    symposiums
    not symposia


      T
      telephone numbers
      If a communication is used only on campus, the area code and prefix may be omitted, using the four-digit extension number preceded by the abbreviation “ext.” in lowercase. Call the Office of Marketing and Communications at ext. 6030 if you have any questions. If a communication may or will be sent off campus, include the area code and hyphens (not periods or parenthesis) between the area code, prefix, and four-digit extension. If the communication will be used on- and off-campus, include the area code and use hyphens between the area code, prefix, and four-digit extension, followed by the extension in parenthesis.
      • Call the Office of Marketing and Communications at 717-867-6030 for more information.
      • Call the Office of Marketing and Communications at 717-867-6030 (ext. 6030) for more information.
      text/texting/texted/text messaging
      Acceptable in all usages as a verb: to send a text message.

      than/then
      “Than” is a conjunction used in comparisons; “then” is an adverb indicating time. The new gym is bigger than the old one. The students studied hard for the exam, and then it was postponed.

      that/which
      Use that and which in referring to inanimate objects and to animals without a name (i.e., the dog). Use that for essential clauses, important to the meaning of a sentence, and without commas. Use which for nonessential clauses, where the pronoun is less necessary, and use commas. A simple test: Once the sentence is written, try reading it without the clause. If the sentence still means about the same thing, the clause should be introduced with “which.” If taking out the clause changes the meaning drastically, it should be introduced with “that.”

      • I remember the day that we met.
      • The team, which finished last a year ago, is in first place.
      theater/theatre
      Use “theater” unless the British spelling, “theatre” is part of a proper name, as in “Allen Theatre.”

      The Valley
      When referring to Lebanon Valley College, capitalize the “t” in “The” when referencing "The Valley." The “v” in “valley” is always capitalized. Only refer to the College as "The Valley" after using the complete title in the initial reference.
      • The Lebanon Valley College alumni magazine, The Valley, is published bi-annually.
      • Lebanon Valley College will host its annual Oktoberfest Weekend on Oct. 28. A record number of alumni are expected to return to The Valley for the festivities.
      The Valley Fund
      The Valley Fund is the official title of Lebanon Valley College’s annual fund and is always capitalized.
      •  The College had 5,000 individual donors give to The Valley Fund this year.
      time
      When stating time, use lowercase with periods for “a.m.” and “p.m.”; do not use “:00.” Do not put the number 12 in front of either noon or midnight. Use either “noon” or “12 p.m.”; “midnight” or “12 a.m.” Never use 12 noon or 12 midnight. Use and en-dash, rather than a hyphen, between time ranges.
      • We will discuss the proposal at the 12 p.m. meeting.
      • We will discuss the proposal at our noon meeting.
      • The meeting will run from 3 to 5 p.m. on Friday.
      • The meeting will run from 3–5 p.m. on Friday.
      • The College Store is open weekdays from 10 a.m.–4 p.m.
      • The College Store is open weekdays from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
      titled/entitled
      “Entitled” means a right to do or have something. Use “titled” to introduce the name of a publication, speech, musical piece, etc.

      titles

      Capitalize and spell out formal titles only when they immediately precede a name. Do not capitalize titles that follow a name. (The exception to this rule is the word “president,” which is always capitalized when it refers to the President of the United States.) The preferred method is to have the title follow the formal name.
      •  Professor Smith is chair of the English Department.
      • Dr. John Smith, professor of physics, has an office on the fourth floor of the Neidig-Garber Science Center.
      toward
      Toward, not towards

      trending

      Do not use without context and explanation.
      • Dr. John Smith's lecture is trending on Twitter today.
      trustee
      Do not capitalize “trustee” before a name.

      Twitter/tweet/tweeted
      A message-distribution system that allows users to post continual updates of up to 140 characters detailing their activities for followers or provide links to content. The verb is to tweet, tweeted. A Twitter message is known as a tweet. Capitalize Twitter when referring to the company; lowercase all other variants. LVC’s official Twitter feeds are:
      • http://twitter.com/LVCCollege (Official College Twitter Feed)
      • http://twitter.com/lvcathletics (Official LVC Athletics Twitter Feed)


      U
      unfriend
      To remove someone from a list of friends, usually on Facebook. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used as the first word of a sentence.

      use/utilize
      Do not use “utilize.” It is the awkward verb form of the obsolete adjective “utile.”


      V
      vice president
      not vice-president

      video conference
      Video conference is always two words.

      VoIP
      Voice over Internet Protocol is a method of transmitting sound as data over the Internet, allowing for inexpensive phone conversations. VoIP is acceptable on second reference.


      W
      web
      Capitalize Web when it stands alone or it is included in the phrase “World Wide Web.”

       

      • When surfing the Web, you may come across many websites that you will find interesting.
      website/webcam/webcast/webinar/webmaster/Web page/Web/Web feed 
      website, not web site; webcam, webcast, webinar, and webmaster. However, in short form and in terms with separate words, use the Web, Web page, and Web feed. The official College website is www.lvc.edu. All College e-communications, advertisements, stationery, brochures, and publications must include the official College website and the approved College word mark. 

      who/whom
      If a sentence has an objective clause referring to a person or animal with a proper name, “whom” should be used.

      Wi–Fi
      Wi–Fi not WiFi; Used to certify the interoperability of wireless computer networking devices.

      wiki
      Software that allows a group of users to add, delete, edit, and share information on an intranet or Internet website. Use lowercase letters except when the word is used in a title or as the first word of a sentence.

      widows and orphans
      In typesetting terminology, an “orphan” is a short word or part of a word that ends a paragraph. A “widow” is a short line or a single word that ends a paragraph on the first line of a column. They should be avoided because they impair legibility.

      Wikipedia
      Always capitalized.

      word mark
      An approved College word mark, and the College website (www.lvc.edu) should be used on all public communications. For guidance on appropriate use of the College word mark, please see the LVC Visual Identity Guide. All College e-communications, advertisements, stationery, brochures, and publications should carry the approved word mark.

      words not abbreviated
      Do not abbreviate the following words: assistant, associate, association, attorney, building, district, government, president, professor, or superintendent.


      Y
      YouTube

      The Y and T are always capitalized. LVC’s official YouTube pages are:

      Updated July 25, 2014